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# Blt mips

Not implemented in the machine. 2 explains how a MIPS instruction is encoded in a binary number. 1 Mon 2014/06/16 Here is a sample program to help you become acquainted with the SPIM simulator. Why does the print section or encode/decode section not work? It just says terminated with errors and does not print. In MIPS terminology, CP0 is the System Control Coprocessor (an essential part of the processor that is implementation-defined in MIPS I–V), CP1 is an optional floating-point unit (FPU) and CP2/3 are optional implementation-defined coprocessors (MIPS III removed CP3 and reused its opcodes for other purposes). Feb 19, 2017 · 8. MIPS is a modular architecture supporting up to four coprocessors (CP0/1/2/3). Lectures by Walter Lewin. Branch if less than (blt) The blt instruction compares 2 registers, treating them as signed integers, and takes a branch if one register is less than another MIPS has an instruction to do blt (branch if less than). – This results in a 232 x 8 RAM, which would be 4 GB of memory. Used register $1 for it. For example: blt$t0, $t1,target #branch to target if$t0<=$t1. MIPS Assembly Language Guide MIPS is an example of a Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) which was designed for easy instruction pipelining. TL;DR: On exams, your code must use only those instructions and psuedoinstructions listed on the MIPS reference card, in addition to la for full credit. Chapter 3: Instructions: Language of the Machine - 22 of 35 Vigenere Cypher implementation in MIPS Assembly. Each is 32 bits wide. ⬅ MIPS instruction cheatsheet it's not actually cheating Here are tables of common MIPS instructions and what they do. 01x - Lect 24 - Rolling Motion, Gyroscopes, VERY NON-INTUITIVE - Duration: 49:13. At the moment, MIPS technology is available in select helmets from Giro, Bell, POC, Scott, and Lazer. The MIPS endlessly cycles through three basic steps. Each cycle executes one machine instruction. 10 MIPS R2000 Assembly Language. text The next items are put in the user text segment. The design has also been licensed to manufacturers, such as the Sony Corporation for its early PlayStation range of games consoles and handhelds, and can MIPS-specific: MIPS program counter actually points to next instruction (PC+4) for efficiency purposes to be clarified later Offset encoded in 16 bits is actually a number of words, not bytes (effectively extending the range to 217 bytes, signed) Offset is added to PC+4 Direct jump instruction(j), can address 228 bytes. Since multiplication takes two 32 bit numbers and returns a 64 bit number, special treatment must be given to the result. s, addi, addiu, addu, and, andi, begz, beq, bge, bgt, blt, bne, div, div. mstart - Multiply MIPS Reference Sheet. . These RISC processors are used in embedded systems such as gateways and routers. move, rem, la, li, blt, Each pseudo-instruction maps to one or more base instructions, e. sgeu, Rd, Rs1, Rcs2, set true if greater or equal 23 Dec 2019 MIPS stands for Multi-directional Impact Protection System. blt$8, $9, 4 Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. Examples MIPS Pseudo Instructions and Functions Philipp Koehn 2 October 2019 Philipp Koehn Computer Systems Fundamentals: MIPS Pseudo Instructions and Functions 2 October 2019 Is there a need for an arithmetic shift left instruction?. 7 bgt / blt / bge / Page 9 contains the MIPS Reference Data sheet and page 10 contains the What is the furthest forward distance that you can branch to, in the BEQ, BNE, BLT. 5 li. • Convert assembly instrs into machine instrs – a separate object file (x. Next: Load Instructions Up: Description of the MIPS Previous: Comparison Instructions blt Rsrc1, Src2, labelBranch on Less Than${}^{\dagger}$bltu Rsrc1 2 Oct 2019 Computer Systems Fundamentals: MIPS Pseudo Instructions and Functions. Conventions. The MIPS instruction set is very small, so to do more complicated tasks we need to employ assembler macros called pseudoinstructions. g. Main processor instructions that do not require a target address, immediate value, or branch displacement use an R-type coding format. hcmus. To be explicit, altogether this means that only the following psuedoinstructions are allowed: blt (Branch Less Than) bgt (Branch Greater Than) Home › Forums › MIPS Insider › Arrays in for loop This topic contains 4 replies, has 2 voices, and was last updated by Sean 6 years, 6 months ago . asciiz str Store the string in memory and null-terminate it. 10. o) is created for each C file (x. end_macro,. 12 Overview of assembly programming MARS tutorial MIPS assembly syntax Role of pseudocode Some simple instructions Integer logic and arithmetic Manipulating register values Interacting with data memory Declaring constants and variables Reading and writing Performing input and output Memory-mapped I/O, role of the OS Using the systemcall interface 2/26 The BLT Instruction . macro, . data or . The variation in the positive adjustments could be vast. The Simple Engineer 25,531 views. placed in section of program identified with assembler directive . A MIPS liner, goggle compatible 3-position visor, and our 360-degree fit make the Speedframe one of the best values in an open-face helmets. Compute Instructions. c) – compute the actual values for instruction labels – maintain info on external references and debugging information MIPS Floating Point Instructions CS/COE 447 Why Floating Point? • Sometimes need very small, or very large numbers? Non-integers? “1. space n Allocate n bytes of space in the current segment (which must be the data segment in SPIM). You need to earn a MIPS score of more than 45 to be eligible for positive payment adjustment. pdf ì “Cheat sheet” for expert programmers ì MIPS commands, registers, memory conventions, … Computer Systems and Networks Spring 2019 52 Write a program in MIPS assembly language that implements the descending bubble sort algorithm to sort a variable-sized array of signed 32-bit integers (words) that are read from the console. The two register numbers which are part of the BNE instruction are passed into the Register File which then passes the data to the ALU. . The program loops 10 times total. • Compiled into add Summary of MIPS Assembly Language instructions blt, branch if less than, blt$ r1, $r2, addr, if$r1 < $r2 then$pc <-- addr. MIPS made the right choice Thus, a read-as-zero register is almost mandatory in any modern processor implementation and MIPS making it visible to software is definitely a plus point given how it streamlines the internal decode logic. Gate Computer Organization-15 | Data Transfer Instructions The MIPS architecture you pictured above already includes the required hardware for the BNE instruction. The registers are identified by a integer, numbered 0 - 31. 171 blt. If they are equal  MIPS Instruction Summary www. an immediate operand a branch target offset (the signed difference between the address of the following instruction and the target label, with the two low order bits dropped) Are you familiar with how MIPS instructions are specified? The comment after the # tells you what you need to do. A logical shift left moves zeros into the low-order bit, which is correct for both signed and unsigned integers. The MIPS Brain Protection System (BPS) is found inside the helmet, generally between the comfort padding and the EPS (a high-quality foam used to reduce energy). Description: Branches if Src1 < Src2 MIPS Register Convention  4. dstep - Divide Step. R-Type Computational Instructions. bge $a0,$a1,done, macro, Branch if a0 >= a1. Checking smaler/bigger with equal (beq): Subtract the first variable by 1 and checking the equality with the second variable. 1” or “2. If they are equal then the zero flag is set. To reference a register as an operand, use the syntax Branch and Jump Instructions. BGT rs, rt, label . Bài 05: Kiến trúc MIPS Phạm Tuấn Sơn ptson@fit. L. 2 dmove; 4. Consider a number 2^N where 31 > N > 0. Note: All CLO’s in this problem set tie to ABET program-level criterion a. MIPS adjusts payment based In MIPS assembly language, there is a multiplication instruction for signed integers, mult, and for unsigned integers multu. asm A "tool" is the MARS utility for MIPS control of simulated devices, including contention for resources. Read More MIPS Assembly Language MIPS Registers. 5. MIPS floating-point arithmetic Floating-point computations are vital for many applications, but correct implementation of floating-point hardware and software is very tricky. The idea is fairly straightforward: to help deflect the rotational force encountered  Recent sample results for some in-house nanoMIPs produced against a small ( circa 800MW) molecule template using Malvern Nanosight 300 - demonstrating  MIPS is a new buzzword in bicycle helmet design. ble $a0 However, lower MIPS and longer clock period (lower clock frequency); Better MIPS and smaller clock period (higher clock blt x1, x3, Loop # i<max? x20. MIPS Assembly Language Program Structure. • blt$t1, $t2, L1. eqv and . 4. The Speedframe MIPS Wurd Helmet has premium features usually meant for much more expensive helmets. float, and . The 64 bit product is located in a \product" register. Ali Irturk Dept. vn 2. edu/comp/140/lectures/Day_3/mips_summary.$a0, 8($sp). 3 Introduction to macros. In MIPS assembly, a label is simply a string used to name a location in memory. 3 formats: – R-type – I-type – J-type • The different fields are: – op: operation (“opcode”) of the instruction – rs, rt, rd: the source and destination register specifiers – shamt: shift amount – funct: selects the variant of the operation in the “op” field Writing and Using Macros. s; 4. tufts. pdf The MIPS processor only supports two branch instructions, beq and bne, but to simplify your life the assembler provides the following other branches: blt$t0, $t1 an instruction provided by the assembler but not implemented in the hardware. MIPS memory is byte-addressable, which means that each memory address references an 8- bit quantity. Branch Greater Than. of Computer Science and Engineering Aug 05, 2014 · Sample MIPS assembly program to run under MARS Fibonacci. Name: _____ Below are some additional problems dealing with data and control flow in the M IPS Pipeline. • All MIPS instructions are 32 bits long. Before explaining types of loops we will have a short discussion on loops, what is the purpose of loops and basic logic behind loops. asciiz str Store string in memory and null-terminate it. The MIPS Instruction Set This section brie y describes the MIPS assembly language instruction set. Proven MIPS coverage for superior open-face performance. Appendixes B Why not blt, bge, etc? Hardware for 18 Aug 2008 bgt$a0,$a1,done, macro, Branch if a0 > a1. 2 October 2019 blt$t0, $t1, address. MIPS Assembler Directives. If you are exceptional performer (MIPS Score ≥ 85 for 2020), you will earn a bonus positive adjustment ranging from 0. 99792E10” • Not always precise. Viewing 5 posts - 1 through 5 (of 5 total) In this post I would be talking about the basics of the MIPS Instruction Set Architecture (ISA). blt$t0, 160, loop The 40 elements are referenced by the addresses (theArray + 0), (theArray + 4), (theArray + 8), etc etc, all the way up to (theArray + 156). Branch instructions use a signed 16-bit offset field; hence they can jump instructions (not bytes) forward or instructions backwards. 4. There are 32, 32-bit general purpose registers. Nov 13, 2018 · LB and LBU both load a byte from memory into the low 8 bits of a register (least significant bits). 8 Sep 2019 We'll be working with the MIPS instruction set architecture similar to other architectures Can use this instruction to build blt $s1,$s2, Label. , in base 10: 1/3 = 0. The destination operand will be added to the PC, and the 68k will continue reading at the new offset held in PC, if the following conditions are met: The N flag is clear, but the V flag is set; The N flag is set, but the V flag is clear . Not all numbers can be represented Repeating digits E. Slt is a MIPS Assembly instruction stand for “Set If Less Than”. Sample tool is a Scavenger Hunt (screeenshot 23KB) , in which each student writes a MIPS subroutine to direct the path of a character to travel to several locations. MIPS has a “Load/Store” architecture since all instructions (other than the load and store instructions) must use register operands. You have to write actual instructions that do the same job. Use these commands to manage the contents of textures and buffers. ble, branch if less than or equal A. – Not all actual MIPS machines will have this much! 232 ×8 memory ADRS OUT May 22, 2015 · Encoding & Decoding MIPS Assembly Language Programming - Duration: 21:54. lw, sw, add, sub, and, or, sll, slt, beq, j, jal, Augmented by a set of pseudo-instructions, e. So if you’re ready to replace your old helmet, the extra $20 or so to upgrade from a non-MIPS to MIPS-equipped model is well-worth the price. All arithmetic and bitwise instructions can be written in two ways: add t0, t1, t2 Test Review 2 MIPS Pipeline Problems . Below is a sample C program and its MIPS implementation. The syntax given for each instruction refers to the assembly language syntax supported by the MIPS assembler. Contribute to micktor/MIPS-Vigenere-Cypher development by creating an account on GitHub. r2, label branch to label if (r1) >= (r2) blt 3 r1, r2, label branch to label if (r1) < (r2) ble 3 r1, r2, Instrucciones y pseudoinstrucciones de MIPS en este tema: add, add. 21:54. text <addr> Figure A. A set of mnemonics for machine instructions Opcodes, register names, addressing modes A way to name memory addresses and constants Other conveniences for generating machine code MIPS Instructions, MARS Debugging, KB vs. Grading Policies Regarding MIPS Assembly Instructions. Text (program) storage always starts at 0x0040 0000. BLT – Branch on Lower Than . Recommended for you MIPS Instruction Set Arithmetic Instructions Instruction Example Meaning Comments add add$1,$2,$3 $1=$2+$3 subtract sub$1,$2,$3 $1=$2-$3 add immediate addi$1,$2,100$1=$2+100 "Immediate" means a constant number add unsigned addu$1,$2,$3 $1=$2+$3 Values are treated as unsigned integers, not two's complement integers Notes: se: SignExtImm = 16 copies of sign bit [15] + imm16 ze: ZeroExtImm = zeros16 + imm16 Branch Address = 14 copies of sign bit + addr16 + zeros2 Jump Address = Copy of top 4 bits of PC + jumpAddr26 + zeros2 The MTLBlit Command Encoder protocol defines the interface for objects that can encode resource-copying commands into a command buffer. Topic 7: Control Flow Instructions CSE 30: Computer Organization and Systems Programming Summer Session II Dr. s, divu, j, 8 Jun 2019 This page contains notes about the MIPS CPU on the N64, PS1, PS2 4. - The value of register R0 is always In the case of MIPS, a word is 32 bits, that is, 4 bytes.$a0, a1, done. To understand how jal works, review the machine cycle. If someone could comment some of the code and help me understand that would be greatly appreciated. add - Add. The Plasma CPU is based on the MIPS I(TM) instruction set. The MIPS (Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages) Assembly language is designed to work with the MIPS microprocessor paradigm designed by J. Instruction Formats: Instruction formats: all 32 bits wide (one word): 6 5 5 5 5 6 MIPS Assembly Instructions Page 3 of 3 automatic alignment of . ì Starting on page 51 is an overview of the MIPS assembly commands! ì MIPS_Green_Sheet. Bit instructions are used to manipulate data at the bit level. This permits the programmer to specify the instruction • MIPS machine language is designed to be easy to decode Each MIPS instruction is the same length, 32 bits There are only three different instruction formats, which are very similar to each other • Studying MIPS machine language will also reveal some restrictions in the instruction set architecture, and how they can be overcome. MIPS Registers and Usage Convention blt Rsrc1, Src2, label, Branch on Less Than. Although not common in high-level code, their use is quite common in instructions generated. ascii str Store the string in memory, but do not null-terminate it. Learn more why blt instruction don't work? Mars mips MIPS is a brain protection system — engineered to add protection to helmets. Syntax: blt Src1Gpr, Src2{Gpr | Imm}, Label. Data storage always starts at 0x1001 0000. MIPS assembly language is a 3-address assembly language. In the description of the instructions, the following notation isused: If an instruction description begins with an, then the instruction is not a member of the native MIPS instruction set, but is available as a pseudoin- struction. cs. Bit Instructions and Instruction Encoding. MIPS arithmetic instructions Instruction Example Meaning Comments add add1,$2,$3 $1 =$2 + $3 3 operands; exception possible subtract sub$1,$2,$3 $1 =$2 – $3 3 operands; exception possible add immediate addi$1,$2,100$1 = $2 + 100 + constant; exception possible add unsigned addu$1,$2,$3 $1 =$2 + $3 3 operands; no exceptions The MIPS computer can address 4 Gbyte of memory, from address 0x0000 0000 to 0xffff ffff. A label may refer to the location of a data value (variable) or of an instruction. bne - Branch If Not Equal. I have this MIPS Assembly program that checks for palindrome but I dont really understand the steps. In this section, we will explain loops in MIPS along with examples. sge, Rd, Rs1, Rcs2, set true if greater or equal. s to be used with SPIM simulator) data declaration section followed by program code section Data Declarations.$t2, 0, overflow. include directives are new in MARS 4. CodeProject, 503-250 Ferrand Drive Toronto Ontario, M3C 3G8 Canada +1 416-849-8900 x 100 I-type instructions have a 16-bit imm field that codes one of the following types of information. They will make you ♥ Physics. 5% -10% in ADDITION to the budget neutral payment adjustment. blt - Branch If Less Than. # make sure that it isn't negative. In essence, think of a label as representing an address. • Floating point registers and the instructions that operate on them are on a separate chip referred to as coprocessor 1 • As a result floating point instructions typically can not use regular registers directly, you need to move the values into floating point registers The effect for the MIPS branch is similar, except we take into account that we're dealing with indices of bytes, not words. 3. # If not, fall thru to next instr move. 2. MIPS Count Ones CSE 220 ASM Assignment Stony Brook University CSE 220 - Fall 2016 The MIPS pipeline essentially starts at a point that would in other architectures be a few stages in. MIPS reference card add rd, rs, rt Add rd = rs + rt R 0 / 20 sub rd, rs, blt rx, ry, imm Branch if Less Than la rx, label Load Address li rx, imm Load Immediate MIPS Branch Instructions beq, bne, bgtz, bltz, bgez, blez are the only conditional branch opcodes Use slt (set on less then) for >, <, ≥, ≤ comparisons between two registers slt rd, rs, rt # if rs < rt, rd = 1; else rt = 0 An example: • branch if the first register operand is less than the second The following is a list of the standard MIPS instructions that are implemented as pseudoinstructions: • blt • bgt • ble • blt • bge • li • move Branch Pseudoinstructions Branch if less than (blt) The blt instruction compares 2 registers, treating them as signed integers, and takes a branch if one register is less than another. Implemented by assembler. half, . 1 MIPS Arithmetic Floating Point Instruction Formats . 6 b; 4. MIPS Instruction Reference. KiB CptS 260 Introduction to Computer Architecture Week 2. Otherwise, the instruction is ignored. align n Align data on a n-byte boundary. The MIPS architecture can support up to 32 address lines. kdata directive. If you want some in-context examples of when you’d use them, see the cookbook. 8. 4 li. loop is very likely assumed to be a short jump address, BranchAddr is the offset needed to get you there. We can detect whether an addition You are implementing the full machine similar to the MIPS processor presented Instructions to support: addi, sub, and, sgt, blt, lw, sw, jr, jal Your decoder must Register Usage. byte b1, , bn Store the n values in successive bytes of memory. data The following data items should be stored in the data segment. Translating an If-Then-Else Statement into MIPS Assembly Instructions. 6. The MIPS processor only supports two branch instructions, beq and bne, but to simplify your life the assembler provides the following other branches: bltt0,  MIPS: Microprocessor without interlocked pipeline stages See MIPS Reference Data tear-out card, and. In each problem, show the instruction data and control line flow. I want to know how to do this same operation using only Equal or Not in assembly – examples: “move”, “blt”, 32-bit immediate operands, etc. edu. Be reminded that in a descending sort, the integers are sorted from the largest to the smallest. b: $t1 addi$ t2, $t1, 3 # tmp = b + 3 blt$t0, $t2, ifless # if (a < tmp) addi$t0, $t0, 2 # otherwise Procedures in MIPS assembly language follow particular protocols for procedure li$v0,1 CLEAR_CTR loop: move $a0, CTR syscall add CTR, CTR, 1 blt CTR, In Von Neumann architectures, such as the MIPS, both the program (machine j label # Unconditional jump beq$t0, $t4, label # Branch if$t0 == $t4 blt$s4,  4. Today we’ll study the IEEE 754 standard for floating-point arithmetic. There are 32 registers that we commonly use. We bring you a guide to the new Multi-directional Impact Protection System. The difference is what happens with the upper 24 bits of the register. Answer: No. 3+dfsg-3: amd64 arm64 armel armhf i386 mips mips64el mipsel ppc64el s390x; buster (stable) (libs): graphics extension library for Tcl/Tk - run-time MIPS; MIPS Assembly language; MIPS Assembly language, cont. word, . blt $a0,$a1,done, macro, Branch if a0 < a1. 33333 Lack of precision The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) is a federal legislation that required CMS to create the metric-driven Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) track of the Quality Payment Program to reward clinicians for value over volume based on performance points scored according to national percentiles. Under MIPS, clinicians are included if they are an eligible clinician type and meet the low volume threshold, which is based on allowed charges for covered professional services under the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule (PFS) and the number of Medicare Part B patients who are furnished covered professional services under the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule. Patterson and Hennessy define a macro as a pattern-matching and replacement facility that provides a simple mechanism to name a frequently used sequence of instructions [1]. A-49 . The Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) is one of the two payment tracks created under MACRA; the other is the Advanced Alternative Payment Model (AAPM) track. d; 4. just plain text file with data declarations, program code (name of file should end in suffix . Load and Store BLT rs, rt, label if(R[$rs]<R[$rt]) PC = Label. Operands are either immediates or in registers. d, div. Dec 18, 2014 · Kiến trúc máy tính và hợp ngữ bài 05 1. • used as a shortcut by assembly language programmers. Arithmetic and Bitwise Instructions. The following is a list of the standard MIPS instructions that are implemented as pseudoinstructions: abs; blt; bgt; ble; neg; not; bge; li; la; move; sge; sgt; Branch Pseudoinstructions . MIPS loops are similar to loops in other programming languages like c++ or java. — Floating-point number representations are complex, but limited. This is a description of the MIPS instruction set, their meanings, syntax, semantics, and bit encodings. # If $a0 is smaller, branch to done. Slt in MIPS is used for a specific condition like if one value is less than another value then set the value of a particular register. 3 Aug 2015 Contents: I-type bne/beq, J-type j, immediate sizes, absolute value, relative offset, branch address example, jump address example, branch Instruction, Operation. MIPS: Software conventions for Registers blt$a0,$t0,mwhl1# end while (i<1000) ml2: sw. MIPS Instructions Note: You can have this handout on both exams. rpt is a fake opcode whose behavior is specified after the #. For certain impacts, the MIPS BPS can reduce harmful forces transmitted to the brain. So DO NOT use$1 for your code  MIPS Assembly Language Programming. In all instructions below, Src2 can either be a register or an immediate value (integer). User memory is limited to locations below 0x7fff ffff. Words are always stored in blt Rsrc1,Src2,label, Rsrc1 < Src2, bltu. MIPS helmets provide an extra degree of safety for all bike riders. d, add. double directives until the next . blt rsrc1, rsrc2, label. blt. 1 move; 4. 1. data Instruction Encodings Register 000000ss sssttttt dddddaaa aaffffff Immediate ooooooss sssttttt iiiiiiii iiiiiiii Jump ooooooii iiiiiiii iiiiiiii iiiiiiii The MIPS processor implements a base set of instructions, e. 2. Hennessy in 1981. MIPS (RISC) Design Principles Simplicity favors regularity • fixed size instructions • small number of instruction formats • opcode always the first 6 bits Smaller is faster • limited instruction set • limited number of registers in register file • limited number of addressing modes Make the common case fast “Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages” (abbreviated MIPS) is a computer processor architecture developed by MIPS Technologies, and is often used when teaching assembly language programming in computer science courses. Through a series of blog posts I would be presenting a C-based MIPS simulator and a Verilog based MIPS single cycle & pipelined processor capable of simulating most of the MIPS instructions. bgt Rsrc1,Src2,label, Rsrc1 > Src2  The assembler takes (non MIPS) MAL instructions and synthesizes them with 1 or blt,bge,ble,bgt,beq,bne beq,bne beqz $4, loop beq$4, $0, loop blt$4, $5, MIPS assembly language is a 3-address assembly language. 2 The jal instruction and register$31 provide the hardware support necessary to elegantly implement subroutines. 1 day ago · I am incredibly new to and very bad at MIPS> I am trying to write a -3 shift caesar cipher (ABC = XYZ), I think the code works but it will not print out the encoded or decoded message. (This is a somewhat simplified view, but sufficient for now). An instruction called blt: branch on less than. 3 li, la; 4. seq, Rd, Rs1, Rcs2, set true if equal. Conditionally  BLT -- Branch on Less Than. bltu Rsrc1, Src2, label, Branch on Less Than Unsigned. The shift instructions. This takes care of checking that the multiplication didn't overflow. blt mips

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